The detergent effect of surfactants is the basic property of surfactants that has the greatest practical use. It is involved in the daily life of millions of households. They are also being used more and more in various industries and industrial production. The following is an explanation of the use of surfactants in various types of detergents.
Detergents: Surfactants are the main active ingredients of detergents, and without surfactants there would be no synthetic detergents. Among all types of SAA, anionic surfactants are the first and most widely used type of surfactants, and the current demand is over 50%. For some time in the future, anionic surfactants will still occupy a dominant position.
I. Anionic surfactants: The main types of anionic surfactants used as detergents are fatty acid salts (soap), alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS), fatty alcohol sulfates (AS), fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene sulfates (AES), alpha-olefin sulfates (AOS), fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene carboxylates (AEC), sodium rosinate (CAS) and methyl fatty acid sulfonates (MES). fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate (MES), etc. 1. Soap: The surface active portion of the soap molecule is negatively charged, with the long carbon chain fatty acid sodium and potassium salts accounting for about 25%. This is the most widely used soap, the advantages: abundant raw materials, easy to prepare, low price. Industry in general, butter, lamb fat and other raw materials, saponification with strong alkali, followed by salt analysis, separation of glycerol and made, the biggest drawback is that they encounter divalent and trivalent metal ions in aqueous solution such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, etc., will generate a very low solubility of calcium soap or magnesium soap, thus losing the cleaning properties of soap should be.
2. Alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS): Alkyl benzene sulfonate sodium salt (R-C6H6-S03Na) is a very important anionic surfactant, which has good solubility in water, almost all of which is ionized, and its calcium and magnesium salts are more soluble in water, so it has good hard water resistance. Among the alkyl benzene sulfonates, straight-chain alkyl benzene (LAS) is cheap, detergent power and easily biodegradable and environmentally friendly. Therefore, to date, no surfactant has been able to match LAS in terms of technical performance and economic benefits when used as a detergent active, and it has been hailed as the mainstay of synthetic detergents by the synthetic detergent industry worldwide. It is mainly used as industrial and household detergent. Representative products: sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, with excellent detergent effect, sodium octadecyl benzene sulfonate has the strongest detergent power among sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate series. 3. α-olefin sulfonate (AOS): AOS is a detergent active with excellent performance. It is mainly used in hand soap, shampoo, foam bath, dishwashing detergent, industrial detergent and laundry powder. 4. methyl ester sulfonate of advanced fatty acid (MES): R is alkyl, R’ is methyl, the detergency is good with R as C16 and C18, and the resistance to hard water is best with R as C14. MES is a surfactant made of natural oils and fats, with good detergency and strong soap-calcium dispersion. and strong calcium soap dispersion. It has excellent compatibility with zeolite and is suitable for the manufacture of phosphate-free laundry detergent. Its calcium soap dispersion force is much higher than LAS, so it is conducive to the production and application of compound soap and soap-based laundry detergents.5. Sodium rosinate (CAS) is a tri-phenylene ring structure anionic surfactant, due to its amphiphilic structure (one end hydrophilic group, one end lipophilic group), solid widely used as a high-performance emulsifier, especially for the emulsification of products containing benzene ring structure in the molecule. When sodium rosinate is used as a flushing fluid, its hydrophilic group adsorbed on the drilling tool and hole wall, while the oleophilic group plays a role in isolating the friction surface, so that the friction between solids becomes friction between the oil surface, thereby reducing the frictional resistance between the hole wall and the drilling tool; sodium rosinate is an important concrete admixture, which greatly improves the mechanical properties of high-strength concrete, sodium rosinate aerator is not only low cost, but also provides Fatty alcohol sulfate (AS) and fatty alcohol ether sulfate (AES): AS general formula ROSO3Na, R for C14 ~ C16 has good detergency; AES general formula RO(C2H4O)nSO3Na, R for C14 ~ C15 n = 1-2 has good detergency. Both AS and AES have good biodegradability, strong detergency and good foaming properties. It is suitable for the formulation of high foaming detergents. It is suitable for easy care or wool detergents, and is used in large quantities in foam baths, shampoos, cosmetics, hand wash meal detergents, detergents for vegetables, household detergents, etc.
II. Non-ionic surfactants: Non-ionic surfactants have good decontamination power for oily dirt and strong ability to prevent re-pollution of synthetic fibers. Hard water resistance and resistance to high concentration of electrolytes are both relatively strong. The biggest advantage of polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactants is the adjustability of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic group parts. The EO number can be adjusted to suit various substrates to achieve the best detergency.
1. Polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers: general formula RO(C2H4O)nH R=C12~C18, n adjustable. These compounds have high detergent activity as shown in the following aspects: low critical colloid concentration (cmc), which means high detergency at low concentrations, strong detergency and anti-dirt redeposition properties when washing synthetic fibers. It also has good low-temperature detergency. At room temperature, it is a white, light yellow paste. Dissolved in water, it has emulsification, net washing and wetting properties. Mainly used in household and industrial, detergents and metal cleaners.
2. polyoxyethylene alkyl phenol ether formula R is mainly octyl, nonyl and dodecyl; n adjustable, they are characterized by strong ability to remove oil and fat. Representative products are OP series, OPE series and SOPE series, the main performance of acid and alkali resistance and hard water resistance, with decontamination, wetting, emulsification of metal processing and industrial detergent.
3. Alkyl glycosides (APG): Alkyl glycosides are touted as a new type of world-class nonionic surfactant. Therefore, it is being particularly favored by many fields such as the detergent industry, make-up industry, food processing industry and pharmaceutical industry. It is also particularly suitable for dishwashing detergent and bottle detergent due to its easy rinsing and non-spotting properties.
C. Amphoteric surfactants: Their molecular structure has both positive and negative charges. Due to the specificity of molecular structure, it has the following characteristics in the process of use: low toxicity and low irritation to skin and eyes; good biodegradability and compatibility; good wettability, detergency and foam generation, and the following types are used as detergents.
1、N-acyl amino acid type: They are mainly used as the base for shampoo and detergent. Can resist weak acid and hard water. For example: N-Acyl polycondensed amino (polypeptide) carboxylic acid salt. Remi gang A (613 detergent, sodium oleoylamino (polypeptide) carboxylate) Remi gang A is condensed from fatty chloride and polycondensed amino acids made by hydrolysis of proteins. Therefore, it has low irritation and low toxicity and can be used in cosmetics. It has strong calcium soap dispersing, detergency and emulsifying power. In the textile industry as a purifying detergent, emulsifier, suitable for washing silk and wool because of poor degreasing power.
2、Betaine-type: Betaine-type amphoteric surfactants have good washing power for both cotton fabrics and polyester/cotton blended fabrics, especially betaine hydroxysulfonic acid, which has its advantages in the washing process. For example, dodecyl dimethyl betaine is a colorless or light yellow transparent liquid. Cationic in acidic media, anionic in alkaline media. Easily biodegradable. This product has excellent foaming properties, can make the hair soft, suitable for the manufacture of non-irritating, hair conditioning shampoo, baby shampoo, etc.. Because of good hard water resistance, it is used to prepare hard water detergent. It can also be used as bactericidal agent.
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