Meaning of Silicone Oil
Silicone fluids, also known as silicones, are polysiloxanes, which are high molecular polymers and include many different types. In general, silicone oil is a generic term for silicone compounds that contain silicon-oxygen bonds (Si-O-Si I).
The appearance of silicone oils also varies widely, and can be oils, lotions, or even gels and powders.
Application areas of silicone oil
Silicone oils are available in a wide range of viscosities, and can be selected from a wide range. Silicone oils are characterized by high hydrophobicity, a light, non-sticky application feeling like hydrocarbon oils, and good spreadability on the skin.
Silicone oil is odorless, non-toxic, non-irritating to the skin, non-allergic, has excellent physical and chemical properties, and is a class of synthetic oil and wax cosmetic raw materials without stickiness and greasiness.
Silicone oil is widely used in various cosmetics such as shampoo, hair care, skin care and color cosmetics.
Classification of silicone oil
There is a wide variety of silicone oils, and the following are examples of representative silicone oils.
1 ► Polydimethylsiloxane ：
Polydimethylsiloxane is a colorless, odorless and transparent liquid. Low viscosity silicone oil is soluble with solvents such as alcohols, while high viscosity is insoluble.
In a wide temperature range, the physical properties of polydimethylsiloxane change very little with temperature, with a small viscosity temperature coefficient, the use temperature of -40 ~ 200 ℃, with good spreading and water resistance, but also to maintain the normal breathability of the skin, enhance the softness of the skin.
In addition, polydimethylsiloxane also has some defoaming effect.
2 ► Cyclomethicone oil：
Cyclic dimethylsiloxane, referred to as cyclomethicone oil, is a polydimethylsiloxane with the head and tail of the silicone main chain.
Cyclomethicone oil is characterized by very low viscosity, good compatibility, low heat of vaporization, high volatility, does not cause a cool and wet feeling to the skin when evaporating, giving a dry and soft skin feeling after use. It has very good lubricity, easy dispersion, good air permeability, glossy, and high stability to light and heat.
3 ► Polydimethylsiloxane alcohol：
Polydimethylsiloxanols are polydimethylsiloxane polymers with hydroxyl groups at the end.
Low viscosity polydimethylsiloxane alcohols are reactive and can form higher viscosity polydimethylsiloxane alcohols by condensation reactions under certain conditions, while polydimethylsiloxane of the same viscosity is not reactive.
Due to the high viscosity of polydimethylsiloxane alcohol, commercially available products are generally complex silicone oils. Complex silicone oils are commonly used in personal care products such as hair care products, skin care products, sunscreens, and color cosmetics.
4 ► Alkyl silicone oil：
Alkyl silicone oil, that is, alkyl modified polysiloxane, is a polysiloxane in which part of the methyl groups on both ends of the main chain or side chains of the polydimethylsiloxane molecular structure are replaced by long-chain alkyl groups, and the substituted alkyl groups generally have a carbon chain length of C6~C28.
Long-chain alkyl modified polysiloxanes are generally liquid or waxy and have similar properties to dimethicone oils, but have better organic compatibility in cosmetic formulations, resulting in a more uniform spread of the organics on the surface of the skin.
Long carbon chain, highly substituted alkyl modified siloxane can improve the rheological properties of O/W cream system, has thixotropic effect in the formulation, and the products made can thicken rapidly and form uniform oil film. It has excellent lubricity, water repellency, anti-fouling and anti-adhesive properties due to its significantly improved solubility in non-polar and weakly polar solvents.
Long-chain alkyl polysiloxanes are surface active in systems such as mineral or vegetable oils and significantly reduce their surface tension, leading to increased diffusion of cosmetic oils and waxes.
5 ► Phenyl silicone oil：
Phenyl silicone oil is a silicone polymer in which part of the methyl group in dimethyl silicone oil is replaced by phenyl group.
Phenyl silicone oil usually has high refractive index, non-greasy, good breathability and good compatibility with cosmetic oils. It can effectively improve the skin feel after use and enhance the shine of the skin.
All phenyl silicone oils are colorless and transparent liquids, and depending on the molecular weight, products of different viscosities can be obtained.
Phenyl silicone oil has good permeability to skin, good skin feel after use, gives skin softness, deepens hair color and maintains natural luster. It is used in various advanced skin care, hair care products and beauty cosmetics.
6 ► Amino silicone oil：
Amino silicone oil is an amino-modified polydimethylsiloxane obtained by inserting amino groups on both ends of the main chain or side chains of the polydimethylsiloxane molecular structure.
Amino silicone oil forms a smooth and strong film on the surface of the hair to deeply repair damaged hair. It has excellent conditioning and deposition properties.
Amino silicones also help to fix color and slow down fading for damage care, intensive care and color treatment types of shampoo and conditioning products.
Amino silicone oil is insoluble in water and is not convenient to use directly in shampoos. Therefore, commercially available products are emulsified amino silicone oil emulsions and amino silicone oil microemulsions, which perform the same function as amino silicone oil.
7 ► Polyether (ether-based) silicone oil：
Polyether silicone oil or ether-based silicone oil is a polysiloxane substituted by the ether on both ends of the main chain or side chains of the polydimethylsiloxane molecular structure.
Polyether silicone oil, commonly known as water-soluble silicone oil, is a multifunctional raw material that can be used as a wetting agent, emulsifier, foam conditioner, lubricant, excipient and plasticizer for hairspray resins. It has stable performance between pH 1~12.
8 ► Polydimethylcyclosiloxane：
Polydimethylcyclosiloxane is a colorless, odorless, non-irritating, volatile liquid with superior brightness, water resistant, soft and dry, and easier to emulsify (low viscosity).
9 ► Water-soluble silicone oil：
A light-colored transparent, extremely viscous liquid with a peculiar odor.
It is a nonionic surfactant with extremely low surface tension and is miscible with water in any ratio, so it can be used in the process of direct addition or in the production of some transparent products.
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