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Application of surfactants in textile dyeing

Textile fiber processing into a variety of textiles, in the process of its processing, need to use a variety of auxiliary chemicals, of which the amount of the most? The largest variety of changes when the number of surfactants, and active agents when the number of sodium rosinate. In addition, there are polymer surfactants and special types of surfactants, such as fluorine-containing? Silicone-containing type, etc., which have special properties due to their special structure. Now, according to the classification of surfactants, we will focus on the development of green surfactants and their application in textile dyeing to meet the requirements of environmental protection.

I. Cationic surfactants

These surfactants have poor detergency and usually cannot be compounded with anionic surfactants, but it has good antistatic and softness as well as good bactericidal and disinfectant ability, and can give fibers a very good softening effect, which is the most important and widely used softener at present. Commonly used types are tertiary amine salts, quaternary ammonium salts and quaternary ammonium salts. Quaternary ammonium salts. Among them, tertiary amine salts are cationic only in acidic medium, while quaternary ammonium salts are cationic in any medium, which is the most widely used type. Dioctadecyl dimethyl quaternary ammonium salt is a fabric softener with outstanding softening performance, the dosage is only 0.1% to 0.2% to obtain the desired effect, and then wetting and antistatic effect, but there is a large toxicity? Biodegradation difficulties; double hydrogenated tallow dimethyl ammonium chloride (DHTDMAC) as a softener, although excellent softening effect, but there are poor antistatic? Poor biodegradability, easy to be absorbed by the sludge in the sewage treatment and pollution of farmland. 1990s has been in Germany? Netherlands and other countries to stop using. Instead of a new generation of green products are: quaternary ammonium ester? Amide ethyl imidazoline quaternary ammonium salt? Triethanolamine quaternary ammonium salt and lecithin quaternary ammonium salt.

Quaternary ammonium esters: with glutamic acid or aspartic acid and C12 ~ 14 fatty alcohols by esterification? Tertiary amination and quaternization and get bis ester quaternary ammonium salt (structure as follows), its softening effect on all kinds of fabrics is equivalent to bis octadecyldimethyl quaternary ammonium salt, but also has excellent water absorption and antistatic properties, and good biodegradability, there is almost no pollution problems. Me2N(CH2)3N(CH2CH2OH)2 and lauric acid 1:1 mixed esterification with benzyl chloride quaternary ammonium quaternary ammonium monoester, can be used as fabric softener? It can be used as fabric softener and lubricant. Quaternary ammonium ester cationic surfactants and polyethylene terephthalate complex can completely clean off the fabric oil stains.

Triethanolamine quaternary ammonium salt: The cationic surfactant obtained by quaternizing triethanolamine with natural oils and fats can give fabrics very good softness. Stearic Acid Oleic acid Palmitic acid and triethanolamine reaction of the amine ester, and then mixed with polyoxyethylene glycol laurate, by sulfuric acid methyl ester can be obtained fabric softener. It can replace DHTDMAC, this kind of surfactant is less toxic and easy to degrade. Germany CHT R BreitlichGmbh developed a biodegradable cationic active softener Tubimgal B, has a high degree of directness, fluorescent whitening agent has no effect on the treated fabrics feel soft and fluffy.

Second, anionic surfactants

The traditional types are sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate? Sodium alkyl naphthalene sulfonate and sodium alkyl sulfate. Among these anionic surfactants, the biodegradability of hydrophobic group with branched structure and long carbon chain is poor, and it is easy to cause river water pollution. In addition, the hydrophilic groups of sulfonates and sulfates have poor biodegradability and can cause river water pollution. Sulfate requires the participation of sulfur bacteria, so the degradation time is long. In contrast, phosphate esters are relatively easy to degrade, while carboxylic acid salts are the easiest to degrade. Among them, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), which is used as detergent, has been gradually replaced by aliphatic alcohol ethoxylate sulfate (AES), secondary alkyl sulfonate (SAS) and secondary alkyl sulfonate (SAS) due to the high foam, high irritation, teratogenicity, poor alkaline resistance and relatively poor biodegradation performance. Sodium α-olefin sulfonate (AOS), α-sulfo fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES), α-sulfo fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES), α-sulfo fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES), α-sulfo fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES), α-sulfo fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES) and α-sulfo fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES). Aliphatic alcohol ethoxylate carboxylate (AEC), and a new product, tea saponin? Peptide-based surfactants were substituted.

Saponin and AES compounding to get the ideal environmentally friendly wool washing agent, while the traditional cleaning agent LS can improve the effect of wool washing, but in the manufacturing process to the use of p-aminoanisole, the latter in the presence of carcinogenic o-aminoanisole is classified as a banned substance; peptide-based surfactant products are Promios EMCP, PromoisEFLS, all have excellent washing and emulsifying properties. They have excellent washing and emulsifying properties.

Third, nonionic surfactants

It is a widely used type of surfactant, can be compounded with other types of surfactants to play a synergistic and synergistic effect, with antifoaming? Emulsification Cleaning and dispersing effects. As defoamers, there are mainly fatty amides, polyoxyethylene dialkyl ether; emulsifiers, there are three series: alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (OP series)? Fatty acid sorbitan esters (S series), polyoxyethylene fatty acid sorbitan esters (T series). Leveling agent such as Pingping plus O? Pingping plus O-15, etc.. Among them, nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (TX-10) can be biochemical treatment, but after biochemical decomposition products are still phenols, and can destroy the human reproductive system, some European countries have banned the use of the law, can be used to replace the toxicity of the natural fatty alcohols of polyoxyethylene ether or sorbitan anhydrous ester. In addition, sugar-based surfactants (alkyl glucoside (APG)? Sucrose esters (SE) and alkanolamides, due to their excellent application properties? Low toxicity and excellent biodegradability. Biodegradability is very good and highly regarded.

Amphoteric surfactants

Amphoteric surfactants have complex structure and high cost, but they have low skin irritation, strong bactericidal power, strong foaming power and strong biodegradability. Fabrics have a soft feel after washing. Used as fabric detergent type for betaine type? Amino acid type, their decontamination power on cotton is much higher than that of LAS, and they have good compatibility with anionic surfactants. Among them, N-alkyl-β-aminopropionic acid is developed in recent years. It is very mild and non-irritating to eyes and has good compatibility with anionic surfactants. It is a mild amphoteric surfactant with no irritation to eyes and good washing effect on various fibers. Alkylamine lactone type structure of amphoteric surfactants structure is as follows: such amphoteric softeners have a strong affinity for synthetic fibers, no yellowing and discoloration of dyes or inhibition of fluorescent whiteners and other drawbacks, can be used in a wide range of pH media. By reacting epoxysuccinic acid sodium salt with hexylamine, a new type of amphoteric surfactant with multiple carboxyl groups on one amino group is obtained, which can be used as fabric softener.

V. New surfactants

“Gemini surfactants” These surfactants are obtained by connecting the hydrophilic groups of two traditional surfactants through a linkage group, which can effectively reduce the surface tension of the aqueous solution, very low Krafft point, greater synergistic effect, and good dispersion of calcium soaps and wetting. Emulsification and other characteristics. Monoalkyl diphenyl ether disulfonic acid can withstand high concentration of strong acids and bases, in 50% sulfuric acid does not inactivate, in 40% sodium hydroxide does not coagulate, and has good antioxidant? It has good antioxidant, anti-reduction, hard water resistance and low-foaming property. It has good resistance to oxidation, reduction, hard water and low foaming.

Another study reported that Gemini cationic surfactants DC3-12, DC6-12 and traditional heptyltrimethylammonium bromide compared with disperse dyestuff 1,4-DDA dyeing nylon 6 and polyester, found that the dyeing rate are better than heptyltrimethylammonium bromide.

Fluorine-containing surfactant: It is a special type of surfactant with fluorocarbon bond instead of traditional hydrocarbon bond, because of its high surface activity (the surface tension of the aqueous solution can be lower than 20mN/m or less), and low cmc, high thermal stability and high chemical stability. Mainly used as fiber waterproof? Oil-proof and fabric finishing process.

Silicone and other surfactants: it is a new type of surfactant developed with the new silicone materials, with excellent performance in reducing surface tension, and excellent wetting? Defoaming and foam stabilization. The hydrophobicity of polysiloxane compounds is very outstanding, not long siloxane chain can make the whole surfactant has strong surface activity. German patent reports, with polysiloxane and alkyl glycoside ratio of 0.5:1.0 ~ 10:1.0 of the emulsion of polyester after printing and dyeing (or polyester/cotton?). Polyester/cotton/wool) fabrics after printing and dyeing were finished, and the washing fastness was further improved on the basis of maintaining the original softness. At least one hydroxyphenyl-substituted polydiorganosilane mixed with an equal amount of phenol can be used as a lubricant for textile fibers. Silicon surfactant Neodol23-3, silwetL 77 and silicone oil and other complex emulsion can be used for fabric wrinkle treatment; a new type of ammonium-containing? A new type of silicon finishing agent containing ammonium group and epoxy group can give fabrics a good handfeel, inhibit yellowing and improve the water absorbency of fabrics.

In addition, phosphorus-containing surfactants represented by phosphate ester surfactants have been used as efficient antistatic agents, wetting agents and emulsifiers in the chemical fiber industry. Wetting agent and emulsifier. Among them, alkyl phosphate ester is a promising one, which can be used as refining agent in pretreatment process. Penetrant (octanol polyoxyethylene ether phosphate penetration effect is very good, and in the 250mg / L lye does not delamination), and decontamination is better than sodium tallow alcohol sulfate? Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and alkylphenol ethoxylates.

Organic boron surfactant is a semipolar compound, which is made of polyol with neighboring hydroxyl group. Low-carbon alcohols and some fatty acids synthesized by the boronic acid triglyceride. It is usually nonionic, and rearranged to anionic in alkaline medium, with good compatibility between B-O bond and macromolecule, excellent thermal stability, especially suitable for antistatic agent. As a new type of surfactant, its use is still under further study.

Six, polymer surfactants

Research shows that the high degree of substitution of carboxymethyl starch shear resistance, by the enzyme effect is small, under certain conditions instead of the higher price of sodium alginate for printing paste. Cationic starch modified cotton fiber, with reactive dyes salt-free pad dyeing, get a high rate of color fixation and adsorption, of which the adsorption of reactive red K-2BP, X-3B and reactive yellow M-7G than the traditional method to increase 3.79 times, 1.4 times and 2.3 times, respectively, the rate of fixation of 90.5%, 77%, and 97.7%, respectively, and compared with the other methods of modification, the fastness to washing, rubbing fastness are in the fourth level. Friction fastness are more than 4 levels, sunlight fastness is also more than 3 levels.

Seven, environmental issues are associated with industrial development, the world’s major textile exporters have launched a “green products” and “environmentally friendly products” today, we should pay attention to environmental and ecological indicators, and strive to develop a good environmental compatibility? We should pay attention to environmental protection and ecological indexes, and try to develop green surfactants with good environmental compatibility, good ecology and good performance. In addition, with the further development of textile Further development of dyeing and finishing technology and people for fabrics? Higher requirements for environmental protection, the future should also pay attention to the development of products are.

1) Surfactants for new fibers: polyester microfiber? Polypropylene and Tecel fibers and other new synthetic fibers with complex morphology and structure, fabrics containing oil? Sizing and other components are complex, need to use special desizing agent? Refining agent and alkali reduction accelerator, etc.; small fiber density? Surface area is large? Dyeing speed, easy to uneven dyeing? Not deep, must add special high-temperature dispersant? Evening agent and deepening agent, etc., after dyeing also need to organize, so as to give a certain degree of softness and smoothness and other properties. Such surfactants should be combined with the development of fiber types.
2) Surfactants for new dyeing and finishing technologies: new dyeing and finishing technologies such as inkjet printing? Microencapsulation and other technologies put forward new requirements for the use of surface-active additives. Such as inkjet printing pretreatment requires additives with good impermeability? Wettability, and can significantly improve the dyeing rate and color fixation rate; microencapsulation technology requires the development of new types? Microcapsule technology requires the development of new and practical microcapsule core and wall materials.
3) Bio-surfactants: a class of amphiphilic compounds with surface activity generated by the metabolism of biological systems, such surfactants have excellent fabric treatment properties and excellent environmental compatibility, the market potential demand.
4) new functional finishing surfactants social environment changes make people put forward more demand for textile materials and clothing, such as with protective properties, and even health care functions. Should vigorously develop high-grade softeners and multi-functional softeners (such as modified silicone?). Organofluorine surfactants, etc.)? Anti-wrinkle agent and safety function finishing agent.

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