The detergent action of surfactants is the fundamental property for which surfactants have the greatest practical use. It is involved in the daily life of millions of households. And it is also increasingly used in a wide range of industries and in various industrial processes.
Detergents: Surfactants are the main active ingredients of detergents, and without surfactants there would be no synthetic detergents. Among all types of SAA, anionic surfactants are the first and most widely used type of surfactants, and the current demand is over 50%. For some time in the future, anionic surfactants will still occupy a dominant position.
I. Anionic surfactants: the main types of anionic surfactants used as detergents are fatty acid salts (soap), alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS), fatty alcohol sulfates (AS), fatty alcohol ethoxylated ethylene sulfates (AES), alpha olefin sulfates (AOS), fatty alcohol ethoxylated ethylated carboxylates (AEC), sodium rosinate (CAS) and Methyl ester sulfonate of fatty acids (MES), etc.
Soap: The surface-active part of the soap molecule is negatively charged, of which the sodium and potassium salts of long carbon chain fatty acids account for about 25 per cent. This is the most widely used soap, advantages: abundant raw materials, easy to prepare, inexpensive. Industry generally tallow, suet and other fats and oils as raw materials, with strong alkali saponification, followed by salt precipitation, separation of glycerol and produced, the biggest drawback is that they encountered in aqueous solution of divalent and trivalent metal ions such as Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Fe2 +, etc., will generate a very low solubility of calcium soap or magnesium soap, thus losing the soap should be the cleaning properties.
Alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS): Alkyl benzene sulfonate sodium salt (R-C6H6-S03Na) is a very important anionic surfactant, it has good solubility in water, almost all of which is ionised, and its calcium and magnesium salts are more soluble in water, so it has better hard water resistance. Among the alkylbenzene sulfonates, straight-chain alkylbenzene (LAS) is inexpensive, has a strong washing power and is easily biodegradable and environmentally friendly. Therefore, so far, there is no surfactant that can match LAS in terms of technical performance and economic benefits when used as detergent actives, and it is regarded as the main force of synthetic detergents by synthetic detergent industry all over the world. They are mainly used as industrial and household detergents. Representative products: Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, with excellent washing effect, sodium octadecylbenzene sulfonate has the strongest washing power in sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate series.
α-olefin sulfonate (AOS): AOS is a kind of detergent active substance with excellent performance. It is mainly used in hand soap, shampoo, foam bath, dishwashing detergent, industrial cleaning agent and laundry detergent.
Methyl ester sulphonate of fatty acids (MES): R is alkyl, R’ is methyl, decontamination power of R for C16 and C18 is good, the resistance to hard water ability of R is the best for C14. MES is a surfactant made of natural oils and fats as raw materials, with good detergent properties and strong dispersion of calcium saponate. It has excellent compatibility with zeolite and is suitable for the manufacture of phosphorus-free washing powder. Its calcium soap dispersing power is much higher than LAS, so it is conducive to the production and application of compound soap and soap-based laundry detergent.
Sodium rosinate (CAS) is a three benzene ring structure of anionic surfactants, due to its amphiphilic structure (one end of the hydrophilic group, one end of the lipophilic group), the solid widely used as a high-performance emulsifier, especially for the molecule containing benzene ring structure of the product emulsification. Sodium rosinate used as flushing fluid, its hydrophilic group adsorbed on the drilling tool and hole wall, while the lipophilic group plays the role of isolation of the friction surface, so that the friction between solids into the friction between the oil surface, in order to reduce the friction resistance between the wall of the hole and the drilling tool; Sodium rosinate is an important concrete admixture, which greatly improves the mechanical properties of high-strength concrete, sodium rosinate aerating agent is not only low-cost, but also provide a Simple and easy to implement the application process.
Aliphatic alcohol sulfate (AS) and fatty alcohol ether sulfate (AES): AS general formula ROSO3Na, R for C14 ~ C16 with good detergency; AES general formula RO (C2H4O)nSO3Na, R for C14 ~ C15 n = 1-2 with good detergency. AS and AES have good biodegradability, strong detergency and good detergency. AS and AES have good biodegradability, strong detergency and good foaming property. It is suitable for formulating high foaming detergent. It is suitable for easy-care type or wool detergent, and is used in large quantities in foam baths, shampoo shampoos, cosmetics, hand-washing meal detergents, detergents for vegetables, and household detergents.
II. Non-ionic surfactants: Non-ionic surfactants have good decontamination power for oily dirt and strong ability to prevent re-pollution of synthetic fibers. Hard water resistance and resistance to high concentration of electrolytes are both relatively strong. The biggest advantage of polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactants is the adjustability of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic group parts. The EO number can be adjusted to suit various substrates to achieve the best detergency.
1. Polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers: general formula RO(C2H4O)nH R=C12~C18, n adjustable. These compounds have high detergent activity as shown in the following aspects: low critical colloid concentration (cmc), which means high detergency at low concentrations, strong detergency and anti-dirt redeposition properties when washing synthetic fibers. It also has good low-temperature detergency. At room temperature, it is a white, light yellow paste. Dissolved in water, it has emulsification, net washing and wetting properties. Mainly used in household and industrial, detergents and metal cleaners.
2. polyoxyethylene alkyl phenol ether formula R is mainly octyl, nonyl and dodecyl; n adjustable, they are characterized by strong ability to remove oil and fat. Representative products are OP series, OPE series and SOPE series, the main performance of acid and alkali resistance and hard water resistance, with decontamination, wetting, emulsification of metal processing and industrial detergent.
Alkyl Glycosides (APG): Alkyl Glycosides are known as a new type of world-class non-ionic surfactants.
Therefore, it is being particularly favoured in many fields such as the laundry, cosmetic, food processing and pharmaceutical industries. It is also particularly suitable for use as a dishwashing detergent and bottle washing detergent due to its easy rinsing and non-spotting properties.
C. Amphoteric surfactants: Their molecular structure has both positive and negative charges. Due to the specificity of molecular structure, it has the following characteristics in the process of use: low toxicity and low irritation to skin and eyes; good biodegradability and compatibility; good wettability, detergency and foam generation, and the following types are used as detergents.
1、N-acyl amino acid type: They are mainly used as the base for shampoo and detergent. Can resist weak acid and hard water. For example: N-Acyl polycondensed amino (polypeptide) carboxylic acid salt. Remi gang A (613 detergent, sodium oleoylamino (polypeptide) carboxylate) Remi gang A is condensed from fatty chloride and polycondensed amino acids made by hydrolysis of proteins. Therefore, it has low irritation and low toxicity and can be used in cosmetics. It has strong calcium soap dispersing, detergency and emulsifying power. In the textile industry as a purifying detergent, emulsifier, suitable for washing silk and wool because of poor degreasing power.
2、Betaine-type: Betaine-type amphoteric surfactants have good washing power for both cotton fabrics and polyester/cotton blended fabrics, especially betaine hydroxysulfonic acid, which has its advantages in the washing process. For example, dodecyl dimethyl betaine is a colorless or light yellow transparent liquid. Cationic in acidic media, anionic in alkaline media. Easily biodegradable. This product has excellent foaming properties, can make the hair soft, suitable for the manufacture of non-irritating, hair conditioning shampoo, baby shampoo, etc.. Because of good hard water resistance, it is used to prepare hard water detergent. It can also be used as bactericidal agent.
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